Thursday, March 19, 2020
Professional HR/marketing essay on Competitive Intelligence Introduction Professional HR/marketing essay on Competitive Intelligence IntroductionResearch Objectives and RationaleLiterature ReviewResearch MethodologyResearch TypeResearch ParadigmResearch ApproachResearch Nature Hypothetical QuestionResearch DesignResearch TechniquesSampling StrategyResearch TimeframeEthical IssuesConclusionReferencesRelated Ã Introduction This paper is set in order to demonstrate the research proposal on the subject of the role of line managers in reward in the context of human resource management. The main covered areas will include the presentation of research objectives and rationale, brief critical investigation of the recent studies and research methodology. The ethical issues are going to be demonstrated at the end of the research proposal. Research Objectives and Rationale Recent research demonstrates that the role of line managers in the implementation of reward programs is neglected in most of the cases. This, in turn, negatively affects the general process of reward program integration. For instance, a survey, which has been done on 1300 organizations in 80 countries, has demonstrated that only 30 % of these organizations have reported a successful implementation of reward program (Stark and McMullen, 2008). It has been further presented in the research that HR executives tend to design the reward programs whereas the line managers tend to integrate those. The research, however, fails to provide an in-depth perspective on the subject of the involvement of both line managers and HR executives (Armstrong and Bowen, 1998).Ã Therefore, it is important to provide the extensive perspective on the subject of the role of line managers in the implementation of rewarding programs. This will contribute to the academic body of research in the human resource subject area. Additionally, it will allow human resource management to identify the main problems with their reward strategies; thus altering the strategies in order to acquire a success in delivery of reward programs. As a result, given the concept of the study, the main research objectives are: To explore the concept of rewards and general role of HR representatives in it To investigate the level of line managersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement in the rewarding process in the context of HR management To identify and explore the elements of the most successful and effective rewarding strategy Literature Review This section is designed in order to deliver a brief critical investigation of key theoretical concepts on the subject of line managers involvement in the development and implementation of reward programs. The main sub-themes will include identification and exploration of human resource function in the development of reward programs, investigation of performance management and identification of the most effective method of reward in the context of line managersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement. Reward and Reward System The reward systems have been integrated within HRM only recently. These have been designed in order to provide the monetary value to those employees who have added value to the organization. This concept is directly interlinked with the development of career and increase in motivation (Thorpe and Homan, 2000). Secord, (2003, p. 403) states that reward management is associated with Ã¢â¬Å"designing, implementing, maintaining and communicating reward processesÃ¢â¬ . These processes, in turn, shape the level of monetary payment for value-adding activities, performed by employees. HR Role and Function in Reward In general, there is little evidence in HRÃ¢â¬â¢s delivery of the actual value to the company. Assessment on 54 organizations, located in the USA, has demonstrated that the majority of companies has not assessed HR department due to the lack of value, delivered by this sector (Ramlall, 2002). It has been further estimated that some companies do not have any specific rating system to measure the performance of HR department (Becker, Huselid, and Ulrich, 2001). One of the key functions of HR is related to the design of reward system. However, this function has been ignored in the recent studies. CIPD (2006) has done a survey in the organizations on the subject of the role of HR representatives in the reward systems. It has been estimated that front-line management plays a much more significant role in the integration of the reward systems, contrary to HR specialists. HR duties are associated with a large number of aspects that should be taken into consideration in order to successfully fulfil the job. This implies that the HRM system should be visible, authoritarian, legitimate and understandable (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004). If these factors are not presented in front of employees, the strength of HRM system, as perceived by employees, decreases. HR representatives are important in design of reward system and performance management. Armstrong and Bowen, (1998) outline the personal characteristics of HR executives and their experience, as the important factors that are projected in design of reward and performance management systems. However, there is little contact between HR executives and employees, which develop the obstacles to actual integration of reward systems and performance management. This implies that HR executives are not able to actually see the performance of employees in order to base the decisions (Armstrong and Bowen, 1998). This increases the significance of line managers in relation to this task. Role of Line Managers in Reward Systems The studies suggest that the role of line managers in fulfilment of some of the HR functions has been increased over the time. Along with the transferring of supervisory duties to line managers, their people management duties have been enhanced as well (Hales, 2005). In the light of current line managersÃ¢â¬â¢ role in people management, the HR function and role are ignored and diminished. The research suggests that line managers are not qualified enough in order to fulfil these types of duties, namely reward systems integration. However, they are trusted by their subordinates as a result of cooperative work together. This is contrasted by the gap, which is developed on the basis of lack of time, willingness and qualifications in order to actually perform HR-related duties (Becker, Huselid, and Ulrich, 2001). It has been further added that for line managers it is easier to implement reward systems and performance management, since there has been a direct link found between the leadership style and motivation development (CIPD, 2007). This implies that line managers are more knowledgeable about their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ traits and level of jobÃ¢â¬â¢s quality. Furthermore, the line managers are able to influence employee motivation development (CIPD, 2007). Performance Management Performance management is regarded to be crucial in effective management of organizational culture. It aims at the evaluation of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and behavior in relation to the job; thus contributing to the increase of the overall significance of performance management practices, as perceived by employees (Hannah and Iverson, 2004). Other scholars suggest that it is a leadership function, which contributes to the efficiency of performance management (Uhl-Bien et al., 2000). This corresponds to the ability to see the supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to provide feedback and explain the goals of the organization, as the main factor that contributes to the increase of employee morale and therefore the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall productivity (Smewing, 2001). This suggests that the employees are seen to be taken care of, therefore are more prone to commit to the organization over the long term. HR specialists are the ones that design performance management programs whereas line managers tend to realize those programs. However, the majority of line managers do not have sufficient tools in order to maintain a qualitative performance management (CIPD in ONREC, 2004). Additionally, it has been estimated that the concept of performance management has changed over time. This suggests that initially, this concept was integrated in order to address the issues of pay and the ability to achieve certain organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives (CIPD in ONREC, 2004). Currently, this concept has evolved into the talent management and the ability to recruit and retain the best employees on the market. Additionally, performance management has evolved into shifting away from the dogma that financial pay may be the only motivating force behind the performance (Armstrong and Baron, 1998). Large attention in the motivation-related research has been attributed to the significance of intrinsic and extr insic motivation. Intrinsic motivation suggest that the employee is motivated by the force of self-motivation. Extrinsic motivation suggests that the employees are motivated by the external factors, like the increase of pay (Speckbacher, 2003). It is stated in the same source that it is a challenging task to channel the intrinsic motivation, however, performance management is shifting to the integration of this dogma. The intrinsic motivation suggests that the employee receives satisfaction from the achievement of certain objectives. Therefore, this motivation eliminates the need to provide additional financial benefits in order to increase employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity. Additionally, already increased employee morale reduces the need for further integration of the additional practices, aimed at the increase of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity (Speckbacher, 2003). Research Methodology This section aims at the presentation of the main research methodology and its elements. This section is based on the integration of Ã¢â¬Å"research onionÃ¢â¬ framework, which implies a shift from presentation of Ã¢â¬Å"research methodÃ¢â¬ to the description of Ã¢â¬Å"primary data instrumentÃ¢â¬ through a variety of stages (Saunders et al., 2009). Research Type Due to the scope and subject of research,mixed research methodology is applied. This methodology suggests that the study will be conducted whilst integrating the elements of quantitative and qualitative research methods (Saunders et al., 2009).Ã This method is regarded to be associated with a high degree of costs, which is suitable, given the scope of the research (Ellin Datta in Greene, 2007). Research Paradigm Research paradigm has been selected to be positivism and interpretivism. Positivism philosophy suggests that the researcher incorporates value- free, objective perspective on the subject of the study. This requires minimum integration of the values and opinions that have been acquired throughout the lifetime (Saunders et al., 2009). Interpretivism on the other hand allows interpretation of the collected information into the narrative format. This is especially applicable to the qualitative interviews. One of the possible disadvantages that may emerge as a result of positivism application, that the researcher may integrate some lifetime values within data collection and analysis processes (Frauendorf, 2006). This might become an obstacle, due to the lack of critical research skills. Research Approach The research approach is proposed to be deductive, in order to benefit from the development of theory on the basis of evaluation of the elements of the acquired data (Thyer, 2010). Deductive research approach exercises the shift from more expanded towards more detailed in line with the subject theory and elements (Thyer, 2010). In other words deductive reasoning employs top down approach, where the conclusions are drawn on the basis of acquired findings.Ã Since this subject is regarded to be multi-dimensional, the analysis of smaller details, associated with the role of line managers in development and integration of reward systems, would be beneficial. Research Nature The research is proposed to be of explanatory character. The main aim of this type of research is to explore the causal relationships between dependent and independent variables. The ultimate purpose of this research is to explain the situation and predict the events (McNabb, 2008). The main question in relation to the explanatory research is attributed to Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Why this event has happened?Ã¢â¬ . Therefore, the main question in relation to this research would be Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Why the role of line managers is so significant and/or so insignificant?Ã¢â¬ . Hypothetical Question Qualitative Research Question: What is the role of line managers in reward system planning and integration as projected in real life time activities? Quantiative Research Hypothesis: Line managers have a direct positive affect on reward system integration Line manager have a direct positive impact on performance management activities Research Design The research design is chosen to be a multiple case study (Yin, 1993). This implies that two case studies will be developed in order to investigate the role of line managers in the development and integration of reward systems. One case will include the line managers; whereas another case will include the employees. This will allow data collection will allow the acquisition of data on the subject of insight on this subject, from line managers and subordinates, which would contribute to the development of the full picture on the subject of study. Multiple case study is known to be associated with the triangulation of data and research methods (Yin, 1993). It has been estimated that case study strategy is well applied to qualitative and quantitative methods, which will result in the achievement of research objectives (Yin, 1993). Research Techniques Along with the integration of mixed research methodology, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews have been selected to be applied as part of the primary data instrument design. Questionnaires will be distributed among employees, namely floor employees in the selected commercial companies. Semi-structured interviews are going to be targeted at the line managers in order to deliver a follow up on the acquired findings, by questionnaires. This will allow demonstration of the perspective of line manager involvement in reward systems integration from both perspectives. Questionnaires are beneficial since these allow collection of the data from a large sample, which is a primary research objective in relation to the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ study group (Saunders et al., 2009). Due to the specifics of the study, the questionnaires are going to be distributed via e-mails, in order to enable quick rate of responses. This is also associated with low degree of costs due to the utilization of th e interactive platform for questionnaires distribution (Saunders et al., 2009). Interviews, in turn, aim at the acquisition of an in-depth perspective on the subject. As a result, once the primary data from questionnaires is collected, the line managers will provide clarification of the causal relationships between the perspectives of employees about their involvement and their actual fulfilment of duties. The interviews will be heldon site, in order to ensure comfortable settings duringÃ the interview. This would allow access to the opinions and views that are hidden deep inside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology. There is a large risk of bias opinion emergence due to the depth of the interview process and involvement of qualitative opinions, views and behaviours (Saunders et al., 2009). Additionally, the lack of research skills might result in the possible shift from the main subject; thus the inability to acquire valuable findings that would correspond with the research objectives. Primary data quantitative analysis is proposed to be maintained on the basis of SPSS processes integration and narration. Sampling Strategy Sample is a group of individuals with specific characteristics that have been selected in order to represent the whole population (Saunders et al., 2009). This research will be based on the incorporation of probability sampling strategy. This strategy suggests that all the individuals within the population have equal chances to be selected for the study. The main segmentation variable will be based on the occupation of study respondents (Saunders et al., 2009). This implies that for questionnaires, the sample will consist of floor employees and for interviews the sample will consist of line managers. The sub-sampling strategy is selected to be a stratifiedÃ random sampling. This implies that all the employees are considered for participating in the study whilst being grouped with regard to their occupation (Saunders et al., 2009). This correlates well with the cross-sectional research design. The sample size is proposed to be 150 floor employees and 10 line managers in one commerc ial organization, which is geographically limited to the UK. Research Timeframe The cross-sectional timeframe has been chosen to be applied in this study. This implies that the research will be conducted over a short period of time, in contrast to the specifics of longitudinal timeframe. This would ensure relatively quick observation of study participants whilst conducting questionnaires and interviews (Jackson, 2008). This would allow investigation of a sample where the members possess different characteristics. Ethical Issues Due to the incorporation of direct human contact as part of the research design, there are some ethical issues to address. First of all, the study will be based on the integration of confidentiality-related policies. This suggests that all the material, which is acquired as part of primary data collection, will be stored confidentially in order to avoid sharing to any other 3rd party, unless otherwise stated by the primary data owner. In addition to this, the questionnaires and interviews are going to be supplied with the introductory letter. This introductory letter is designed in order to acknowledge the study participants with studyÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose, aims, terms and conditions. By accepting the terms and conditions of the research, the study participant agrees to participate in the process of research conduct. Both questionnaires and interviews are designed in order to address the race relations and equality of rights. Any study participant will have the opportunity to withdraw from any stage of research conduct process, whereas their data will not be utilized for the purposes of research. The study participants will have a right to stay anonymous, unless otherwise stated. All the expenses, namely research, transportation, communication and stationary are manageable by the researcher. Draft Timetable Ã Ã 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Literature Review Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Design of Primary Data Instrument Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Pilot Study and Data collection Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Data Analysis Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Analysis and Discussion Chapters Completion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Draft review by supervisor Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Amendments and Final Review Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Conclusion This paper was designed in order to demonstrate the proposal for the research on the subject of line managers involvement in reward systems integration and performance management. It has been estimated as part of the literature review, that line manager role is significant in the integration of both of these processes. It is mainly associated with the fact that they are able to see and engage in the actual performance management; thus being able to produce objective results in relation to reward systems, contrary to the HR department. It has been further estimated that employees tend to develop both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, where intrinsic motivation is much more significant in channeling in order to acquire the benefits in relation to the financial performance of the company. As a result, the main objectives of research is to explore the level of involvement of line managers in the reward systems. This is proposed to be done by the means of mixed research methodology int egration. The primary data collection instrument consists of interviews and questionnaires that are distributed among 10 line managers and 150 floor employees in the commercial organization in the UK. References Armstrong M, Baron A (1998). Performance Management: The new realities. Institute of Personnel Development: London. Becker, B., Huselid, M., and Ulrich, D. (2001). The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy, and Performance. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Bowen, D.E., Ã Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of Ã¢â¬Å"StrengthÃ¢â¬ of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29, 203-221 CIPD. (2006). Rewarding Work: Vital Role of Line Managers. Available from: cipd.co.uk/NR/rdonlyres/72035864-98CD-495A-8CB9-96989B96E73C/0/vitalrolmgrca.pdf (Accessed on 10/12/12) Hales, C. (2005). Rooted in supervision, branching into management: continuity and change in the role of first-line manager. Journal of Management Studies, 42: 3, 471Ã¢â¬â506. Hannah, D. and Iverson, R. (2004). Employment relationships in context: implications for policy and practice, in J. Coyle-Shapiro, L. Shore, S. Taylor and L. Tetrick (eds). The Employment Relationship: Examining Psychological and Contextual Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 332Ã¢â¬â350. Jackson S. (2008). Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach. 3rd ed. Cengage: USA McNabb D. (2008). Research Methods in Public Administration and Nonprofit Management. 2nd ed., Sharpe: USA Ramlall, S. (2002). A Critical Review of the Role of Training Development in Increasing Performance. Journal of Compensation and Ã Benefits, 18, 5, 12-17 Saunders M., Lewis P. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students. 5th ed., Pearson Education: UK. Secord H. (2003). Implementing Best Practices in Human Resources Management. CCH: Canada Speckbacher, G. (2003). The Economics of Performance Management in Nonprofit Organizations. Nonprofit Management Leadership, 13, 3, 267-281. Stark M., MacMullen T. (2008). When considering effective reward-program implementation, too frequently the role of the line manager is neglected. WorldAtWork Journal, 2nd Quarter. Ã Thorpe R and Homan G. (2000). Strategic Reward Systems. London: Pearson Education Limited. Thyer B. (2010). The Handbook of Social Work Research Methods. 2nd ed., p 33, Sage Publications: UK ONREC. (2004). Line managers are key to good performance management. Available from: onrec.com/news/news-archive/line-managers-are-key-to-good-performance-management (Accessed on 10/12/12) Uhl-Bien, M., Graen, G. and Scandura, L. (2000). Indicators of leaderÃ¢â¬âmember exchange (LMX) for strategic human resource management systems. Research in Personnel andÃ Human Resources Management, 18: 137Ã¢â¬â185. Yin, R., (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. 2nd ed., CA: Sage Publishing.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Sample Responses to a College Deferral Letter If you applied to college through an Early Action or Early Decision option, you may find that youve been neither accepted nor rejected, but deferred. Many applicants despair when their application for early admission ends up in this frustrating limbo for it feels much like a rejection. It is not, and you can take steps to improve your chances of getting admitted with the regular admission pool. One easy step is to write the college a response to your deferral letter. Key Takeaways: Responding to a College Deferral If you have new information that could strengthen your application, share it with the admissions folks. This can include improved test scores, a new award, or a new leadership position.Be positive: reaffirm your interest in the school, and dont let your anger and frustration at being deferred darken your letter. Be careful not to suggest the admissions folks made a mistake.As with all written parts of your applications, pay careful attention to grammar, punctuation, and style. Colleges want to admit students who write well. Always remember that if the college did not think you had the qualifications necessary to be admitted, you would have been rejected, not deferred. Essentially, the school is telling you that you have what it takes to get in, but they want to compare you to the full applicant pool. You simply didnt stand out quite enough to be admitted with the early applicant pool. By writing to a college after being deferred, you have the opportunity to both reaffirm your interest in the school and present any new information that might strengthen your application. So, dont panic if you received a letter of deferral after applying to college throughÃ early decisionÃ orÃ early action. Youre still in the game.Ã First, read through theseÃ 7 tips on what to do if deferred. Then, if you think you have meaningful new information to share with the college that has deferred your admission, write them a letter. Sometimes you can write a simpleÃ letter of continued interestÃ even if you dont have new information to share, although some schools explicitly state that such letters are not necessary, and in some cases, not welcome (admissions offices are extremely busy in the winter). Sample Letter from a Deferred Student Below is a sample letter that would be appropriate if deferred. Caitlin has a significant new honor to report to her first choice college, so she certainly should make the school aware of the update to her application. Note that her letter is polite and concise. She doesnt express her frustration or anger; she doesnt try to convince the school that theyve made a mistake; instead, she reaffirms her interest in the school, presents the new information, and thanks the admissions officer. Dear Mr. Carlos, I am writing to inform you of an addition to myÃ University of GeorgiaÃ application. Although my admission for Early Action has been deferred, I am still very interested in UGA and would very much like to be admitted, and therefore I wish to keep you up to date on my activities and achievements. Earlier this month I participated in the Siemens Competition in Math, Science and Technology in New York City. My high school team was awarded a $10,000 scholarship for our research on graph theory. The judges consisted of a panel of scientists and mathematicians led by former astronaut Dr. Thomas Jones; the awards were presented at a ceremony on Dec. 7. Over two thousand students entered this competition, and I was extremely honored to be recognized alongside the other winners. More information on this competition can be found through the Siemens Foundation web site: siemens-foundation.org/en/. Thank you for your continued consideration of my application. Sincerely, Caitlin Anystudent Discussion of Caitlin's Letter Caitlins letter is simple and to the point. Given how busy the admissions office will be between December and March, short is important. It would reflect poor judgment if she were to write a lengthy letter to present a single piece of information. That said, Caitlin could strengthen her letter slightly with a few tweaks to her opening paragraph. Currently she states that she is still very interested in UGA and would very much like to be admitted. Since she applied Early Action, we can assume that UGA was among Caitlins top choice schools. If so, she should state this. Also, it doesnt hurt to briefly state why UGA is a top choice school. As an example, her opening paragraph could state something like this: Although my admission for Early Action has been deferred, UGA remains my top-choice university. I love the energy and spirit of the campus, and I was truly impressed by my visit to a sociology class last spring. I am writing to keep you up to date on my activities and achievements. A Second Sample Letter Dear Mr. Birney, Last week I learned that my application for early decision at Johns Hopkins was deferred. As you can imagine, this news was disappointing to me- Johns Hopkins remains the university Im most excited about attending. I visited a lot of schools during my college search, andÃ Johns Hopkinss program in International Studies appeared to be a perfect match for my interests and aspirations, and I loved the energy of the Homewood Campus. I want to thank you and your colleagues for the time you put into considering my application. After I applied for early decision, I received a couple more pieces of information that I hope will strengthen my application. First, I retook the SAT in November and my combined score went from 1330 to 1470. The College Board will be sending you an official score report soon. Also, I was recently elected to be the Captain of our school Ski Team, a group of 28 students who compete in regional competitions. As Captain, I will have a central role in the teams scheduling, publicity and fund raising. I have asked the teams coach to send you a supplemental letter of recommendation that will address my role within the Ski Team. Many thanks for your consideration, Laura Anystudent Discussion of Laura's Letter Laura has good reason to write to Johns Hopkins University. The 110 point improvement on her SAT scores is significant. If you look at thisÃ graph of GPA-SAT-ACT data for admission to Hopkins, youll see that Lauras original 1330 was on the lower end of the accepted student range. Her new score of 1470 is nicely in the middle of the range. Lauras election as Captain of Ski Team may not be a game-changer on the admissions front, but it does show more evidence of her leadership skills. Especially if her application was originally light on leadership experiences, this new position will be significant. Finally, Lauras decision to have a supplementalÃ letter of recommendationÃ sent to Hopkins is a good choice, particularly if her coach can speak to abilities that Lauras other recommenders did not. Don't Make the Mistakes in This Letter The letter below illustrates what you should not do. Brian asks to have his application reconsidered, but he does not present any significant new information for reconsidering the decision. The increase in his GPA from a 3.3 to a 3.35 is fairly trivial. His newspaper has been nominated for an award, but it has not won the award. Moreover, Brian writes as if he has been rejected, not deferred. The university will look at his application again with the regular pool of applicants. The biggest problemÃ with the letter below, however, is that Brian comes across as a whiner, an egotist, and an ungenerous person. He clearly thinks very highly of himself, placing himself above his friend and making much ado about a modest 3.3 GPA. Does Brian really sound like the type of person the admissions officers will want to invite to join their campus community? To make matters worse, the third paragraph in Brians letter essentially accuses the admissions officers of making a mistake in admitting his friend and deferring him. The goal of Brians letter is to strengthen his chances of getting into college, but questioning the competence of the admissions folks works counter to that goal. To Whom It May Concern: I am writing in regards to my deferral for admission to Syracuse University for the fall semester. I received a letter earlier this week informing me that my admission had been deferred. I would like to urge you to reconsider me for admission. As you know from my previously submitted admissions materials, I am a very strong student with an outstanding academic record. Since I submitted my high school transcript in November, I have received another set of mid-year grades, and my GPA has gone up from a 3.3 to 3.35. In addition, the school newspaper, of which I am assistant editor, has been nominated for a regional award. Frankly, I am somewhat concerned about the status of my admission. I have a friend at a nearby high school who has been admitted to Syracuse through early admissions, yet I know that he has a somewhat lower GPA than mine and has not been involved in as manyÃ extracurricular activities. Although he is a good student, and I certainly do not hold anything against him, I am confused about why he would be admitted while I have not been. Frankly, I think that I am a far stronger applicant. I would very much appreciate it if you could take another look at my application, and reconsider my admissions status. I believe I am an excellent studentÃ and would have much to contribute to your university. Sincerely, Brian Anystudent A Final Word on Responding to a Deferral As with any communication with a college, youll want to pay careful attention tone, grammar, punctuation, and style. A sloppily-written letter is going to work against you, not strengthen your application. Finally, keep in mind that writing a letter when deferred is optional, and at many schools it wont improve your chances of being admitted. You should definitely write if you have compelling new information to present (dont write if your SAT score went up just 10 points- you dont want to look like youre grasping). And if the college doesnt say not to write a letter of continued interest, it can be worthwhile to do so.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The Business Proposal (The Genius Junior) - Essay Example The Genius Junior is a small firm that operates as an education mediator that mediates between the education institutes in UK and the Saudi students who wish to study in the UK. The goal of the company is to extend support to students who are keen on studying in UK and get cultural exposure and make profits at the same time through a stipulated commission from the institutes that the students get enrolled in. The company started its operations at a small scale with just the owners getting successful associations with institutes and signing contracts to make a commission of 20-25% on every enrolled student. The first year of operation saw decent returns on investment and all stakeholders were keen at getting associated with the company for the future feasibility of the project. Several theories and researches explain that itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to penetrate a market that has some competition than the one that is entirely new for any product or services in terms of exploration. There will certainly be enough takers of a service that boasts of future nurturing and better career prospects. The most unique thing about this service being provided to students of Saudi Arab is that they or their parents do not have to struggle and run to and fro in trying to meet the formalities. In order to find out the interests, preferences, and influential factors of the target market, i.e. children in the age group of 14-25 years, an extensive market research will be conducted. The ideas generated from this market research will be utilized in targeting the potential consumers of the facility to be able to under go courses at UK schools and universities. In order to remain competitive, the company will strive for constant improvements in services and associations in future within the financial and time constraints. Games Workshop is successfully operating in the gaming industry and has made significant
Sunday, February 2, 2020
1905 Revolution in Russia - Essay Example The research paper will also discuss why the Russian revolution was unsuccessful. Any changes witnessed due to the revolution will also be discussed in the paper. Introduction The Revolution of 1905 in Russia began on Sunday, January 9. This was after military guards massacred more than one thousand children, women, and men outside the Winter Place of the Tsar. On that Sunday, which came to1 be regarded as the bloody Sunday, 150, 000 workers on strike together with their families marched through St. Petersburg. The reaction to the massacre spread across the industrial centers, which experienced spontaneous strikes of workers (Ascher 2004, p. 68). Moreover, the massacre marked the beginning of armed preparations of workers. Peasants in the countryside extended their views through numerous evictions of landlords. It took more than one year for the Revolution to end and save the reactionary Tsar regime. This was despite the massive support the regime got from reactionaries and capitalis ts. Prior to the 1905 Revolution, Russia had witnessed a significant strike in 1902 and 1903. However, this was not the key factor that triggered the 1905 uprising. The main factor that triggered the Revolution was the Japanese and Russian War in 1904. During this war, Russian troops felt humiliated since the Japanese troops defeated them. As a result, the workers and the capitalist class perceived that the Tsar regime in Russia could easily be defeated. These high hopes of defeating the military triggered the onset of the Revolution. In addition, the War with Japan burdened the peasants and workers; this increased opposition to the Tsar regime. The Revolution can be regarded as an uprising of the Russian people who wanted change in their government (Ascher 2004, p. 70). Timeline of the Events du2ring the Russian Revolution of 1905 A timeline of the events during the Russian Revolution shows the occurrences witnessed during the Revolution. From January 3-8, 120, 000 striking workers marched through St. Petersburg as the government warned them against the protests. On the bloody Sunday of January 9, 150, 0000 striking workers together with their families marched in St. Petersburg. Their main aim was to deliver a protest to the Tsar, but the Russian army shot them down (Ascher 2004, p. 71). The reaction to this massacre spread to the neighboring regions; industries experienced numerous strikes of workers. On February, the strike spread to the Causasus; Grand-Duke Sergei Alexandrovich was assassinated in the height of the protests. During the same month, Nicholas II ordered the creation of an assembly to report on the reforms of the constitution. The following month, the unrest and the strikes reached the Urals and Siberia. On April 2, the second National Congress of Zemstovs demanded a constitutional assembly; this saw the formation of the Unions of Unions. The government got embarrassed on May due to the sinking of the Baltic Fleet, which had spent seven months sailing round to Japan. On June, the government used soldiers to counter strikers in Lodz, and on June 18, Odessa was halted following a massive strike. From June 14-24, there occurred a mutiny of Sailors on Battleship Potemkin. The first conference of the Peasants union was held in Moscow on August; the same month, Nizhnii held the first Congress, which comprised of the Muslim Union (Ascher 2004, p. 72). On August 6, Tsar issued a 3manifesto that detailed the creation of a state Duma; however, this plan faced massive rejection from the revolutionaries on grounds of its weak structure. The treaty of Portsmouth on August
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Influenza Causes People to Stay Home Yesterday the influenza record was broken as the highest number of [cases] in New York City alone was 5589 in a single day! The numbers are staggering and many people are looking at taking more precautions at preventing the disease to spread to them and loved ones. People everywhere are wondering if enough is being done to prevent influenza from spreading. The board of health has passed a sanitary code which includes the following sections: "Section 89 of the sanitary code requires isolation and quarantine of persons infected with infectious disease. Section 98 of the sanitary code provides that no person in the city of New York, without a permit therefore issued by the Board of Health, carry, move, or caused to be carried, or moved in any matter whatsoever in any public place or street any person infected with infectious disease, nor shall any person remove or cause to be removed in the City of New York any such person from any building or vessel, without a permit therefore, issued by the Board of Health. Section 100 of the Sanitary Code provides that no person shall by any exposure of any individual sick with an infectious disease or by any negligent act connected therewith, or by a needless exposure of himself cause, contribute to, or pr omote the spread of disease to any such person." However even with these strict sanitary codes people are taking further measures. Many parents that I interviewed reported that they were even avoiding sending their children to school because of fear of catching influenza. Jack Smith of Manhattan stated, "Why would I want to put my children at such a risk? I would rather sacrifice a small portion of their education for their protection and even lives." Schools are however making serious efforts at preventing the spread of disease amongst students. Dr. William L Ettinger who is the Superintendent of Schools, sent a letter of instructions for all school officials on how to deal with influenza in the schools. Some of these instructions state that "proper and adequate ventilation of classrooms must be maintained" and that "pupils be required to hold their pocket handkerchiefs in front of their mouths and noses when coughing and sneezing." Another rule given amongst the long list is that "each teacher be instructed to inspect her class of pupils carefully each day and to refer to the school doctor or nurse any child showing acute cold, congestion of the eyes with watery secretion from the nose, acute sneezing or coughing.
Friday, January 17, 2020
It is hard to imagine life without email nowadays. The only efficient means of communication, with efficient meaning that the message is delivered within seconds, is either through the cellular phone or through email via the internet. It is even more impossible to imagine how people could work under circumstances that denied them access to the latest communication technologies or even technology at all. Yet somehow, there was really a time when people where not at the beck and call of their cellular phones and a time when nobody really felt the urge to keep checking the mailbox every five minutes for fear of missing an email. There was a time when people actually drove to the store or entered a store and talked with the attendants before buying something. Ordering shoes and bags or other electronic items was done by going to a shop and not by going online and surfing online as it is done today. Friends and lovers were met and made by going to social functions and parties instead of by checking out somebodyÃ¢â¬â¢s myspace profile or advertising on online personals. While those practices are still being done by certain individuals, the growth of the internet and the wide array of services that it offers have dramatically altered the manner by which people interact with one another and also the manner by which individuals lead their daily lives. The convenience and accessibility that the internet offers makes it an ideal replacement for all the previous time and energy consuming endeavors. With the number of people who are connected to the internet growing everyday, it is but a natural consequence that more and more services are being offered online ranging from dating, shopping, research and entertainment. In understanding how this newfound online lifestyle has changed our lives, it is important to understand the lures that are online that make it such a tempting alternative to doing this the time consuming and energy expending tasks. The internet provides everything online. Everything a person can desire or want is available online. Romance can be found through chatting or through online personals while intrigue can also be found on popular blog spots. Food is readily available for order online and so are clothes and other items. In short, there is nothing that cannot be found online and all a person needs to do is point and click. This is the lure of the online life and this is the reason why more and more people are leading the online life. It is convenient. It is time saving. It does not require one to expend a lot of energy. In certain cases, it also allows a person to work more efficiently and become more productive. From the standpoint of privacy, the internet offers virtual anonymity to anybody who goes online. All of this is offered online thanks to the great improvements in electronic and communications technology. As the developments in the electronics and communications technology continues to improve and advance, it will no longer be far off to imagine a world where nobody is walking the streets and everyone is hooked up to their computers interacting with each other in a world where they can be their own gods and dictate their own destinies without even breaking a sweat. Instead of just seeing an image of another person online, it may actually be possible to experience the sensation of feeling and touching that person. This all may just be future talk but one thing is certain. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society has become so dependent on the benefits that technology has brought in making online life possible that we have come to a point of no return where we can no longer imagine life without it. If you think otherwise, turn off your cellular phone and unhook the jack of your computer and see how long you can survive without it.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Primary Research By Primary research we mean, getting information directly from the customers. There are several ways we can get information directly from customers. We can interview customers. We can survey customers. We can observe customers actions and behaviors. All of these methods have their pros and cons. Interviewing Customers We need to identify target customers. Then we need to focus on purpose of interviewing customers. We may want to extend relationship with customers. We may want to increase business with customers. Or we may be trying to address customer grievance. Whatever may be our purposes, we must be clear about those purposes. Better approach would be to interview customer face to face. However, we can rely on technology to interview customer. For example, we can use Skype to video or audio interview customers. We can send e-mail to customer to get answer of interview questions. Surveying Customers Interviewing individual in large customer base will be a daunting task. It may not be cost effective. To cover a large customer base from the target market segment, we can use surveying techniques. We need to prepare list of effective questionnaires. Questionnaires must include open questions as well as close questions. Product Manager prepares this questionnaires with the help of appropriate functionaries. Then we have to find a way to send this questionnaires to target customers. We can use internet to do survey. We can use a popular magazine targeted forShow MoreRelatedHow Organizations Use Marketing Research to Contribute to the Development of Their Marketing Plans883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmarketing research to contribute to the development of its marketing plans Primary and secondary research Marketing research informs businesses, helps them make decisions and understand the changing dynamics of its market. 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